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    Traditional Explanation - Has primarily focused in on two areas; genetics and      neurotransmitter imbalances.  Only small percentages of people have a genetic      disorder (chromosome abnormalities) that could cause physical and or mental      disorders.  (Example: Down’s syndrome)  If this theory were true we would see      specific testing abnormalities in genetic testing with learning disorder individuals,      which we do not.  The other thought is that neurotransmitter production, reception or      both is altered in the central nervous system, not allowing the brain to function      correctly.  Also thought due to genetics. These two areas may have a role in learning      disorders, but not in the direct way they are presented.  

A new emerging area of study is called Epigenetics.  We know that environment plays a crucial role in development of a living being.  Don’t give a tree water or sun, it probably won’t grow.  Smoking (putting carcinogens into the body) over time can cause cardiovascular disease and cancer.  Cancer is caused from mutated cellular DNA, that causes cells to not function for their intended purpose.  These mutated cells can then grow and cause masses and spread.  The carcinogens are an environmental influence that causes health problems.  So providing proper environmental stimulus is important to development. When certain criteria is from a stimulus are met, your genes can turn on or off.  Allowing the body to adapt best to the environment around it.

Epigenetics and Neurotransmitters - what is part of the answer was a combination of these two reasons.  Could a lack of dopamine (neurotransmitter) production/expression be because environmental influences (prenatal, internal, or external) have delayed genetic expression of dopamine production and or receptors.  If the genetic information is there, it just has to be “turned on” or expressed.  In other words the problem is most likely due to a lack of development of the neurons, rather than an absence of genetic material.  This is why medication effectiveness is only temporary.  Once it wears off, the problem is still there....a lack of neuron development.  

New vs. Traditional Explanations

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Neuroplasticity